The summit is set to review steps to adapt NATO to current security threats, as well as exchange views on threats to Euro-Atlantic security, the presidency said in a written statement.
At the NATO headquarters, Erdoğan was greeted by the alliance's Secretary-General Jens Stoltenberg, who is hosting the summit. Turkish ATAK helicopters flew over the NATO headquarters for the first time. World leaders have watched the flight with interest.
A meeting of NATO heads of state and government will be held on Thursday and Friday at the new alliance headquarters in Brussels, Belgium.
Erdoğan is expected to hold bilateral meetings with his counterparts on the summit's sidelines.